This post is part 7 of a series on file formats, written for the 2017 UK-KBRIN Essentials of Next Generation Sequencing Workshop at the University of Kentucky.
.qual file provides Phred-based quality scores for a set of sequences (often a corresponding FASTA file). It looks something like this:
>my_sequence1 4 39 8 4 50 1 100 5 0 >my_sequence2 3 3 40 42 35
Similar to FASTA format, each sequence is defined with a header starting with the
> character, and all subsequente characters after the line break describe the sequence. Unlike FASTA, the individual nucleotides are not included in this file, only the corresponding quality Phred-format scores.
At this point, all we need to understand is what are Phred quality scores. Every nucleotide in a sequence will have a quality score associated with it. The score
Q describes the probability
P that the base is called in correctly:
Q = –10 log(P)
Let's look at some example Phred scores below:
|Phred score||Probability incorrect||% likelihood correct call|
|3||1 in 2||50%|
|10||1 in 10||90%|
|20||1 in 100||99%|
|30||1 in 1000||99.9%|
|40||1 in 10,000||99.99%|
|50||1 in 100,000||99.999%|
|60||1 in 1,000,000||99.9999%|
Phred scores typically range from 2-40 with current sequencing technology. As you can see, setting a cutoff somewhere around
30 or higher results in fairly strict confidence in invidual base calls.